Importantly, these neurons play a key function in modifying preferences for both appetitive and aversive tastes. Interestingly, two distinct neuronal pathways ranging from the LHA to the lateral septum (LS) or to the lateral habenula (LHb) contribute to the modulation of appetitive and aversive taste preferences, respectively. These findings make clear the existence of hypothalamic neuronal circuits (AgRP ARC →Vglut2 LHA →LS and AgRP ARC →Vglut2 LHA →LHb) regulating starvation-induced style modification. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of AgRP neurons on hunger-induced style modification by using chemogenetic and optogenetic approaches to minimize potential hormonal results on taste sensations. Neural circuits for hunger have been extensively investigated, and the importance of Agouti-associated peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons beneath starvation conditions has been highlighted 10 .
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